Ability Grouping Grouping students by ability or readiness level. Groups can be formed and reformed to meet varied instructional purposes. It is not synonymous with "tracking."
Accelerated Learning Pacing students through the curriculum at a rate faster than normal and commensurate with their advanced ability. Students may or may not be formally identified as high ability to participate in some forms of accelerated learning.
Achievement Test A test, generally standardized, that measures the extent to which a student has mastered the skills and knowledge of a particular area as measured by that test
Advanced Placement Any of 33 classes endorsed by the College board in which in which a secondary student can earn college credit by successfully meeting criteria established by higher education institutions on a nationally given and scored Advanced Placement exam. Students also earn high school credit upon successful completion of the course(s).
Affective Learning Incorporating into the curriculum opportunities for students to address values, attitudes, and appreciations of self and others.
Anchoring An instructional strategy that provides meaningful and important independent activities with challenge levels ranging from remediated to accelerated in content and/or enrichment areas. Anchoring activities are used to promote “What’s next” thinking rather than “I’m done,” when students finish at different times due to differentiated instruction.
At-Risk Students who may underachieve or who may drop out of school. Unmet economic, physical, emotional, linguistic, and/or academic needs may inhibit a student's ability to learn or attend school.
Authentic Assessment Process of evaluating student learning using student products or performance instead of traditional standardized or paper and pencil tests. It allows students to be evaluated with regard to their individuality and creativity.
Broad-based Planning Committee In Indiana Administrative Code, “Broad-based planning committee” means a diverse group with representation from educators, parents, students, community members, and other stakeholders; organized for the purposes of planning and development of programs for high ability students.
Collaborative Learning A teaching strategy whereby students are expected to share expertise and effort in order to create a common project/product.
Content/ Process /Product The elements of curriculum. Content is the subject matter. Process is the activity that a teacher uses to help students make meaning out of the content included in the curriculum. Product is the output of learning or form of communication such as writing, illustrating, performing, debating, etc.
Creativity The human attribute of constructive originality. It is the process of combining what exists into something new. The something new could be procedure, idea, or product relative to the individual. Creativity needs to be nurtured in students to develop the abilities necessary to affect our society with new ideas and solutions to problems.
Critical Thinking The development of analytical thinking for purposes of decision making. This includes using specific attitudes and skills such as analyzing arguments carefully, seeing others' points of view, and reaching sound conclusions.
Cross-Grade Grouping Students from two or more grade levels with similar readiness levels, interests, and/or learning styles are placed together in a classroom.
Curriculum Compacting A process used to give students validation for what they already know. It allows students who demonstrate mastery to omit portions of assigned curriculum, or to move more quickly through curriculum than would be typical. Students are thus able to "buy time" which can be used to accelerate content or to pursue enrichment activities while the unit is being taught to other students.
Differentiation Adapting the curriculum to meet the unique needs of learners by making modifications in complexity, depth, and pacing. It may include selecting, rather than covering all, the curriculum areas dependent on the individual needs of students. In Indiana Administrative Code, “Differentiated” means providing tiered levels of services for all educational needs.
Dual/Concurrent Enrollment Students earn credit at two levels while enrolled on one course. While this is usually college credit and high school credit while enrolled in a course of study, it could also apply to receiving high school credit for a course taken while in an earlier grade.
Early Entrance Students begin their elementary school or college education prior to the designated chronological age of entrance.
Enrichment Activities that supplement the core curriculum. Such activities are generally not specified in the curriculum and are selected by the teacher and/or students in a given classroom.
Grade Skipping Students progress through grade level instruction skipping one or more grades.
Heterogeneous/Homogeneous Grouping Grouping heterogeneously generally occurs by chronological age level and without regard for the diverse needs of students, their learning styles, or their interests. Homogeneous grouping is based on common criteria such as the students' interests, special needs, or academic abilities.
High Ability Student In Indiana Code "high ability student" means a student who performs at, or shows the potential for performing at, an outstanding level of accomplishment in at least one (1) domain when compared to other students of the same age, experience, or environment; and is characterized by exceptional gifts, talents, motivation, or interests.
Honors Class Classes at the middle school/junior high or high school level in which content,
pace, or depth of instruction is accelerated. Traditionally, students who meet prerequisite
criteria are accepted into these courses.
Individualization Providing a specific program that meets the particular needs, interests, and/or abilities of an individual student for some part of his/her educational experience. It does not mean, however, that every child is working in isolation on a different level or a different subject at all times. It does mean that students are working on levels commensurate with their assessed ability, needs, and/or interests.
Instructional Scaffolding An apprenticeship approach to instruction which places the teacher in a collaborative, interactive role with students by providing carefully structured and sequenced support as they undertake new and more difficult tasks. Emphasis is on teacher modeling, extension, rephrasing, questioning, praise, and correction rather than on the teacher as evaluator.
Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) A measure of ability or aptitude at a given point in time, comparing children of the same chronological age. It is a test designed to measure one's potential for learning including abstract thinking and reasoning, knowledge acquisition, and problem-solving abilities. Originally it was considered to be the sole way of measuring student ability. Current thinking now accepts I.Q. as one of the many ways to measure a student's academic potential.
Interdisciplinary Curriculum A curriculum that is structured to study a topic or concept by gathering and relating information and ideas from multiple disciplines.
Learning Styles A student's preference for a mode of learning and/or a type of learning environment. For example, a student could favor auditory learning in an independent learning environment.
Mentor An adult member of the community who can provide expertise and/or advice in a field of study or other community endeavor when matched with a student on a one-to-one basis.
Multifaceted Assessment According to Indiana Administrative Code, “Multifaceted assessment” means collecting and analyzing data to identify the educational needs of high ability students through the following: (1) Performance-based assessment, which includes evaluating the performance of students involved in complex learning opportunities through the use of instruments, such as rating scales, observation or interviews, portfolios, structured observations or interviews. (2) Potential-based assessment, which includes evaluating the potential performance of high ability students through the use of instruments, such as standardized intelligence tests, standardized achievement tests, behavior rating scales. (3) Other forms of assessment, which include using procedures designed to reduce any assessment biases that may be inherent in other assessment methods used to evaluate the levels of services needed for high ability students.
Multiple Intelligences The theory that intelligence can be expressed in a variety of ways and is not limited to the rational linear mode. The theory commonly associated with Howard Gardner identifies at least seven intelligences: linguistic, musical, spatial, logical mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
Norm-Referenced or Standardized Test A test used to determine an individual's status with respect to the performance of other individuals on that test. A "norm" group is the large number of examinees who have taken a particular test and whose scores form the basis of the norms. Such a test may be based on national norms, state norms, or local norms. At every level of educational test usage, it is necessary to match the scope of the test with the purpose that test is supposed to perform.
Off-Grade Level Tests A test one or more grade, or age, level(s) above the student's actual grade placement or age used to assess a student's ability or achievement.
Portfolio Assessment A collection of student products used to measure student progress and achievement. A collection of student products is often used to evaluate abilities to determine the appropriateness of placement in a program such as visual and performing arts. This These achievement objectives must be consistent with academic standards and include improvement in (at least) attendance, percentage of students meeting academic standards under the ISTEP program, and for a secondary school, graduation rate.
Self-Contained Classroom A programmatic term defining a homogeneous setting of students with common needs and/or abilities. The class can include multiple grades or ages.
Standards Content standards means the specific academic knowledge, skills, and abilities that all public schools in this state are expected to teach and all pupils are expected to learn in each of the core curriculum areas, at each grade level. Performance standards are standards that define various levels of competence at each grade level in each of the curriculum areas for which content standards are established. Performance standards gauge the degree to which a student has met the content standards and the degree to which a school or school district has met the content standards.
Tiering Providing assignments varying in level of complexity/challenge while focusing on the same basic concept or learning experience. This is a type of differentiation.
Tracking Fixed groups that are rigidly maintained over time. This word is NOT synonymous with grouping and does not preclude opportunities for special needs groups for any learner at some time.
Underachieving A discrepancy between recognized potential and actual academic performance. The causes of underachievement may be social, emotional, physical, and/or academic.
Visual and Performing Arts One of the domains of high ability as listed in Indiana Code. According to Indiana Administrative Code, “Visual and performing arts” means understanding facts and concepts, developing skills and generalizations, and evaluating their relationships as they apply to disciplines, such as art, dance, music, and theater arts.